Policy Papers

Long-term finance in Latin America, report prepared for IDB, December 2015.

Financial Regulation in Europe: Foundations and Challenges (joint with Elena Carletti and Itay Goldstein)

Ireland's banking system - looking forward, for a recent European Commission/Trinity College Dublin conference

Finance for Development: A Research Agenda,  written for the ODI under a grant from the DFID-ESRC Growth Research Programme (DEGRP).

Bank Financing for SMEs - Lessons from the Literature, National Institute Economic Review 225, R23-R38, 2013

Banking Union for Europe: Risks and Challenges (Editor), Vox eBook, 16 October 2012.

Finance and Growth: Lessons from the literature and the recent crisis, July 2012. Prepared for the LSE Growth Commission.

Banking in Europe: Disentangling a Twin Crisis, June 2012, prepared for the OeNB 40th Economics conference in May 2012.

SME Finance: What have We Learned and What Do We still Need to Learn? Chapter in World Economic Forum Financial Development Report 2010.

Regulatory Reform after the Crisis: Opportunities and Pitfalls, in Oh, Y. (Ed.), The World Economy with the G20. Korea: KIEP/CEPR, 2010. (Also CEPR Discussion Paper, no. 7733, 2010)

Finance in Africa: Achievements and Challenges, with M. Fuchs and M. Uy, in: World Bank, African Development Bank and World Economic Forum, 2009 (Eds.): African Competitiveness Report

Bank Competition and Financial Stability, Friends or Foes?, in: Competition in the Financial Sector, Bank Indonesia and Banco de Mexico (eds), 2008.

Creating an Efficient Financial System: Challenges in a Global Economy, South African Reserve Bank, Banco de Mexico, and The People's Bank of China (ed.) Economic Growth, 2006.